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Perfectionism can be difficult to spot as a problem, especially among high-performing students and in high-stress environments. But it’s critical to pay attention to students who are struggling with the pressure to be perfect because it can have serious effects on their mental health, academic performance, and self-esteem. The defining characteristic of perfectionism is a fear of making mistakes, according to research by Dr. Thomas Greenspon published in Psychology in the Schools (2014).

“Hallmarks of perfectionism include an exaggerated concern over any mistakes, lofty and unrealistic self-expectations, harsh and intense self-criticism, feeling other people need you to be perfect, and nagging doubts about performance abilities,” says Dr. Simon Sherry, a psychologist and associate professor at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, Canada.

Perfectionism looks different for everyone. Here’s what to look for in your students

  • Feelings of inadequacy: Those who struggle with perfectionism often feel that they’re not good enough, according to Greenspon’s research. If they do happen to make some mistakes, perfectionistic people are likely to take that personally. Their slip-ups become reflections of themselves as people, not just of their performance or achievement.
  • Setting rigid rules: Perfectionistic people take rule-setting to an extreme, one that can get in the way of daily functioning. This intense structure can lead to other stressful and time-consuming habits, such as over-checking work to excess or missing deadlines, according to research published in 2016 in JMIR Research Protocols.
  • Procrastinating on assignments or never turning them in at all: Perfectionists are often consumed with making sure that every last detail is perfect. While some may never miss a deadline, others might finish tests late, turn in assignments after the due date, or never finish them at all, according to the Psychology in the Schools study.

So how can you help?

Build a community that values the learning process, not just the results

Encourage students to think critically about what they’re learning, not just how they’re performing. Share examples of mistakes that you’ve made to reframe the idea that perfection is a requirement for success.

To prevent people from attributing their shortcomings to personal flaws, and to draw attention to how much failure it takes to get where you want to go, a Princeton professor created a CV of his failures. Share it with your students, or make one of your own.

Know your resources and share them with your students

If you see students struggling with unrealistic expectations, self-imposed pressure to be perfect, or procrastination, make sure you know what resources are available to help and have that information visible and readily available. The school counselor may have resources for dealing with perfectionism, or a tutor may be able to help with time management. The more you normalize reaching out, the more likely students are to feel comfortable doing so.

Get help or find out moreArticle sources

Keith Anderson, PhD, psychologist at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York.

Simon B. Sherry, PhD, registered psychologist, researcher, and associate professor, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Sarah Vinson, MD, child and adolescent psychiatrist; assistant professor in psychiatry and pediatrics, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Benson, E. (2003). The many faces of perfectionism. Monitor on Psychology, 34(10), 18. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/monitor/nov03/manyfaces.aspx

Capan, B. E. (2010). Relationship among perfectionism, academic procrastination and life satisfaction among university students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1665–1671. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042810017167

Damian, L. E., Stoeber, J., Negru, O., & Baban, A. (2014). Perfectionism and achievement goal orientations in adolescent school students. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9), 960–971. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262485145_Perfectionism_and_achievement_goal_
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Diana Rodriguez is a writer based in Louisville, KY, with more than 12 years of experience writing about health. She has written extensively for HealthDay, as well as Everyday Health, Healthgrades, Lifescript, Vitals, Mayo Clinic, and others. She graduated from Miami University (Ohio) with degrees in journalism and French.

Chelsey Taylor works as an editor and content manager. She taught English in South Korea as a Fulbright Fellow and has a BA in anthropology from Wheaton College in Norton, Massachusetts.